Sunday, February 14, 2010

Topic 4: Assessment

ASSESSMENTS 
This section deals with the types of assessment performed at each level of the three tier system model.  The first level focuses on most/all students level of abilities and looks mainly at academics.  In the second tier the assessments begin to look at academics as well as behavioral assessments.  There are a variety of test performed on students today.  The following will give some idea of the types:
Academic Based

 

TIER I  Interventions begin in the classroom.  Teachers use reading and math assessments to find the abilities of the students they teach.  Some of the assessments used in District 500 schools are:
(Criterion Referenced Test)
DRA -Diagnostic reading assessment this assessment focuses on fluency of readers through accuracy, fluency, comprehension and strategy useage
*  Running records-http://www.readinga-z.com/guided/runrecord.html - checklist of words read in text and students comprehension of the text
MAP - Measurement of aptitude and performance in math and reading abilities this is a computer based assessment that levels as the student answers questions to the level of the learner
DIBELS - Dynamic Indicator of Basic Early Literature Skills this assessment focuses on the 5 main components of reading 1.  Phonemic Awareness 2.  Alphabetics principles 3. Fluency and accuracy 4.  Vocabulary  5.  Comprehension

TIER II Interventions generally involve some of the prior criterion referenced testing as well as other RTI (Response to Intervention) testing
Student Improvement Teams - Teams of Teachers and other specialist in the school discuss interventions that can be put in place to help students in the general education classroom and the progress of interventions
Functional Behavior Analysis - FBA
Functional Assessment Interviews - FAI - used to identify the functions or root cause of behavior based on the student.  The FAI has four  goals, 1) identify social skill difficulties 2) assist in the differentiation of social skills acquisition 3) identify competing problem behaviors that may interfere 4) obtain initial information regarding the function of the behavior
BIP - Behavior Intervention Plans
*  Progress monitoring assessments that are generally self made by the teachers
*Behavior Rating scales -  one of the most commonly and least expensive - unfortunately also very subjective to typical  rather than actual behavior in any setting
*  Social Skills Rating Scales - SSRS - Social Skills Rating Scale a comprehensive assessment of social skills
SSCSA - Scales of Social Competence and School Adjustment a rating scale designed to be completed by teachers and other school professionals.This is an excellent psychometric test in terms of reliability and validity.
Sociometric Techniques - information is gathered directly from the student's peer group.  This test is used to evaluate children's friendship patterns.  They have two basic methods 1) peer nominations and 2) peer ratings by others
Systematic Observation of Social Behavior - most important social skill assessment methods.  Four factors should be considered in recording the systematic behavioral observations :1) operational definitions of behavior 2) dimensions of the behavior to be assessed 3) the number and types of behaviors assessed 4) the number of observation sessions.  It is suggested to use the FAI aforementioned as a precursor to the systematic observation 

TIER III Interventions are students who generally are not making progress in the first two tiers of intervention.  After going through a systematic process students parents are contacted and more formalized testing begins.  The school psychologist generally follow the more advanced and scripted assessments of social, academic, IQ, functional and behavioral abilities.
BASC - Behavior Assessment System for Children
*Woodcock Johnson III (WJ-III)”
 “Wescheler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC)
For more in depth information on the types of test school psychologist, counselors and schools provide to their students visit one of the following blog spots:
Cristina's blog at :  http://cristinarobbsped843.blogspot.com/
Holly at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/go/rss/-/2/hi/default.stm
 Ed at:  http://flynnsblog.flynnsblog.blogspot.com/

REFERENCES:
Links as shown above
Information from kipbs.org.sped843 - lessons and instructions from class
Information from USD 500 Personnel using forms and providing services

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