Thursday, May 6, 2010

Tier 1 Interventions
Tier 2 Interventions
Tier 3 Interventions
  • Active Supervision s
  • Defusing techniques
  • Varied Pacing
  • Visual and verbal prompting
  • Many opportunities to respond
  • Instructional delivery
  • Parent involvement
  • Social skills instruction – general skills
  • Assignments on academic level
  • Reading seatwork at academic level
  • Reinforce positive behaviors, not punish negative behaviors
  • Proximity Control
  • Token economy à earn bucks to spend at class store
  • Flexible grouping
  • Collaborative planning with grade level teachers and SPED team
  • Explicit teaching of expectations
  • Consistency when enforcing the rules/expectations

  • Role play to demonstrate appropriate responses
  • Change the setting to take away what may trigger behaviors – for example if proximity to a particular child or location within the room will trigger a bad response move the student’s seat away from those locations
  • Fading out support
  • Precorrection—intervene before triggers occur (analysis necessary)
  • Task interspersal
  • Social skill instruction – specific to student need, or small group need
  • Debriefing sessions
  • Alternate difficult tasks with not difficult tasks
  • Follow every non-desired activity with a desired activity
  • Frequent breaks during undesired activities
  • Serve a detention the length of the amount of academic time wasted
  • Scheduled time to catch up on missed work
  • Safe spot/Buddy Room

  • Triage in the morning and afternoon
  • Reduce number of responses on required assignments
  • Receive points or praise for attempts to complete work
  • Provide choices
  • Self-Management or self-monitoring – reminder to stay on task delivered every four minutes…maybe the use of a timer that goes off every four minutes, a walkman that will prompt you to stay on task
  • Visual schedule so students could see when they are going to have to transition and will know what the upcoming activities are
  • Have students show their mastery based on their learning style – orally, visually, or written
  • Reinforce positive behaviors, not punish negative behaviors
  • Provide Illustrations for directions
  • Provide illustrations for all rules/expectations
  • Picture cards for communication
  • When the student receives a certain amount of pluses they will go to the teacher to receive praise or a reward
  • Use visuals to show how you’re a feeling instead of throwing a fit
  • A journal allowing the student to write down how they are feeling when they are frustrated instead of throwing a tantrum or shutting down
  • Increase frequency of rewards
  • Tape line boundaries within the classroom that the student is not allowed to leave without permission from the teacher
  • Offer choices---within limits that meet academic standards, such as: deciding which of two activities to do first, deciding which two crayons to use in a drawing etc…
  • Provide explicit vocabulary instructions in smaller grouping with focus on one student per day, hour, or activity as much as possible.
  • Use mnemonic devices
  • Utilize graphic organizers
  • Allow student to complete work and allow for student correction without penalty
  • Give students an example of how another student completed the same assignment
  • When work is missed or not completed check for understanding of concepts before counting against grade.
  • Get the student to keep a to do list and show them how to mark off completed items. Expect the student to present each day or week. When correct give extra time or grade point.
  • Tell the students that a reward will be given for assignments turned in early to teach the student to avoid procrastination

Tuesday, May 4, 2010

Topic 16: Interventions at the Tier levels

The first step in the process is to define the problem, and embedded within this step is noting who is experiencing the problem and what level of support (i.e., Tier 1, Tier 2, or Tier 3) is warranted. Look at the student’s actual or current performance and desired or expected performance. . By looking at the data and where the student is and where they should be the educator will have a clear idea of where to begin and what type of data to collect with what type of strategies.

One important question that schools need to consider is whether a student should receive Tier 1, 2, or 3 services. Tier 3 services are designed to address the needs of students who are experiencing significant problems and/or are unresponsive to Tier 1 and Tier 2 efforts. Clear guidelines for Tier 3 support should be identified by the schools and what type of services will be given at each level. Second, there should be a measurement tool which will evaluate the needs for Tier 3 services without warranting the extra strategies and trials before allowing these type of services.

When a student has been identified as being in need of Tier 3 intervention supports, the next is selecting the appropriate strategies and supports. (.,;%20http//;%20

A second option is what is called the SIT team at our school. This is a team approach and stands for the Student Improvement Team. The teachers follow a strict guideline and focus on the strengths of the student and try a variety of strategies before then asking for even more interventions or support by asking for an evaluation of the students needs.

If the information we gather suggests that the reading problem is not a skill problem, but rather a performance (i.e., won’t do) issue, then the intervention should focus on addressing the function (e.g., escape task) of the behavior. Much has been written about linking assessment to intervention through functional behavioral assessment, and when problems are performance issues, interventions can address behavior function in several ways. When a student’s behavior is maintained by escape from a task, for example, the intervention might reduce the student’s motivation to escape the task by making the task less aversive (e.g., adjusting the choice of materials to increase interest), teach the student a more appropriate way to communicate that the task is aversive (requesting a brief break), or allowing escape from the task following performance of the task for a specified time period.

Tier 3 interventions are designed to address significant problems for which students are in need of intensive interventions. As a result, Tier 3 interventions require careful planning. Specifically, an intervention plan should describe the following:

1. What the intervention will look like

2. What materials and/or resources are needed

3. Roles and responsibilities with respect to intervention implementation (i.e., who will be responsible for running the intervention, preparing materials, etc.)

4. The schedule (i.e., how often, for how long, and at what times in the day?) and context (i.e., where, and with whom?)

5. How the intervention and its outcomes will be monitored (i.e., what measures, by whom, and on what schedule?) and analyzed (i.e., compared to what criterion?).

A resource developed by the institute of Education Sciences, US Department of Ed .

Step 3: Did the student’s problem get resolved as a result of the intervention?

Accurate data should be kept on students going through interventions at the Tier levels. At Tier 3 the process is incomplete until educators ask if the student’s problem was resolved as a result of the intervention. The best way to determine whether a student is making progress toward the desired goals in RTI is to collect ongoing data. Intervention does not stop until the student’s problems have been resolved therefore accuracy and validity of data is imperative for the process to continue to work.(for further information, see Olson, Daly, Andersen, Turner, & LeClair, 2007)


Daly, E. J., Chafouleas, S. M., & Skinner, C. H. (2005). Interventions for reading problems: Designing and evaluating effective strategies. New York: Guildford Press.

Daly, E. J., Witt, J. C., Martens, B. K., & Dool, E. J. (1997). A model for conducting a functional analysis of academic performance problems. School Psychology Review, 26, 554–574.

Deno, S. L. (2002). Problem-solving as “best practice.” In A Thomas and J. Grimes (Eds.) Best practices in school psychology IV, Volume 1 (pp. 37-55). Bethesda, MD: National Association of School Psychologists.

Ervin, R. A., Schaughency, E., Goodman, S. D., McGlinchey, M. T., & Matthews, A. (2006). Moving research and practice agendas to address reading and behavior schoolwide. School Psychology Review, 35, 198–223.

Ervin, R. A., Schaughency, E., Goodman, S. D., McGlinchey, M. T., & Matthews, A. (2007). Moving from a model demonstration project to a statewide initiative in Michigan: Lessons learned from merging research-practice agendas to address reading and behavior. In S. R. Jimerson, M. K. Burns, & A. M. VanDerHeyden (Eds.), The handbook of response to intervention: The science and practice of assessment and intervention (pp. 354–377). New York: Springer.

Ervin, R. A., Schaughency, E., Matthews, A., Goodman, S. D., & McGlinchey, M. T. (2007). Primary and secondary prevention of behavior difficulties: Developing a data-informed problem-solving model to guide decision making at a schoolwide level. Psychology in the Schools, 44, 7–18

Wednesday, April 28, 2010

Topic: 15 PBS PLAN

PBS refers to positive behavior supports. SWPBS is a school wide positive behavior support program that an entire school takes part in. Evaluation of these programs is essential to maintaining its effectiveness. The National PBIS (Positive Behavior Interventions & Supports) website provides all the information necessary to evaluate a SWPBS plan. The first section is comprised of school wide evaluation tools. This also includes case studies and examples. The second section focuses on tiers 2 and 3. This section includes checklists and functional behavior assessments. The third section contains SIMEO tools. SIMEO represents Systematic Information Management for Educational Outcomes. This provides resources to schools, families, and students.


Evaluating Positive SPIN News
Special Connections “An Introduction to Positive Behavior Support Planning”
“A Preliminary Study on the Effects of Training using Behavior Support Plan Quality Evaluation Guide (BSP-QE) to Improve Positive Behavioral Support Plans” by Diana Browning Wright
“Behavior Support Plan Quality Evaluation Scoring Guide II” by Diana Browning Wright

Topic 14: Cultural Competence


Culture is a pattern of knowledge, belief and behavior that is passed down through within families. Culture is not just based on a person’s ethnicity, but is a compilation of things such as religion, ethnicity, language, and other things. A person’s culture can be outwardly displayed in a variety of ways. Some of the ways that we are most likely to see cultural differences in school are personal space, family, non-verbal cues, topics of conversation, and how problem behavior is perceived.

Cultural competence is defined as the integration of knowledge about people into specific standards, beliefs, practices, and policies, and attitudes (Mark King, Anthony Sims, David Osher There are many different levels of cultural competence:

1. Cultural Destructiveness-- When attitudes, policies, and practices are destructive to cultures and to individuals within these cultures. Assumption that one’s culture is superior and individuals seek to eradicate other cultures because of their perceived sub-human condition.

2. Cultural Incapacity-- When agencies do not intentionally seek to be culturally destructive, but rather have no capacity to help people from other cultures. Belief in the superiority of the dominant group is present

3. Cultural Blindness-- Well intended philosophy that “Americans do not have their own culture” however, this belief can often camouflage the reality of ethnocentrism. This system suffers from a deficit of information

4. Cultural Pre-competence implies movement towards reaching out to other cultures. The pre-competent agency realizes its weaknesses in working with people of other cultures and attempts to improve that relationship with a specific population.

5. Cultural Competence-- Acceptance of and respect for differences, continuing self assessment regarding culture, careful attention to the dynamics of differences, and continuous expansion of cultural knowledge and resources.

6. Cultural Proficiency-- Characterized by holding culture in high esteem. These agencies actively seek to hire a diverse workforce.

It is important that schools and individual staff members self-assess where they are on the cultural competency scale. If a school or individual is able to see where their strengths and weaknesses are, they will be able to improve their cultural competence. Children are most likely to be successful in school if their parents and other family members are involved in their education and school life.

A culturally competent educator is respectful of the cultural values of their students. They are also aware of how their own culture and beliefs can affect how they plan and teacher their students. A teacher needs to be able to teach from a “multicultural” perspective and have a general knowledge of all their students cultures. It is typical for students from a culturally diverse family to have struggles in school, due primarily to a lack of understanding of their culture and the way they are taught at school.

There are several things that a teacher can use to become a culturally competent educator. This list is gathered from :

1. Participate in diversity training opportunities

2. Use materials from a variety of cultures in lessons

3. Provide students with the opportunity to see the similarities and differences among cultures

4. Learn as much as possible about your students culture

5. Attempt to communicate with families in their native language, or on a method that is typical for their culture

6. Don’t stereotype your students

7. Revise teaching materials that students have access to in order to remove bias

8. Use visual aids when necessary and appropriate

9. Be aware that limited English proficiency doesn’t mean that a student isn’t intelligent

Topic 17 : Bullying Prevention

Topic 17: Bully Prevention

Bullying – exposing another person to either verbal or physical harm, or threatening to harm another person with the purpose of controlling the other person’s thoughts and/or actions (Throckmorton, 2005)

School bullying is when a student or group of students behave in a way that is intended to harm their victim. Three conditions allow bullying to take place: a person who has the will to hurt others, a potential victim, and opportunity (Wright 2003). It is hard to get a true measure of how many students are bullied because bullying is not always reported by the victims due to fear of retaliation.

There are two different types of bullying: direct and indirect.

Direct Bullying

1. Physically aggressive acts – pushing, kicking, punching, hitting, stealing

2. Verbal Aggression – Mocking, name calling, taunting and teasing, dirty looks, verbal threats

3. Intimidation

Indirect Bullying

1. Social Alienation – gossiping, spreading rumors, humiliating, exclusion from activities, social rejection

According to Jim Wright there are four things that teacher must do to reduce bullying:

assess the extent of the bullying,

make sure the students understand what bullying is and why it is wrong, confront students who are bullying firmly and fairly,

have suitable consequences for bullying.

One suggestion for determining the extent of bullying is the use of observation in informal settings. Have outside staff members observe the student(s) or/and have students complete a questionnaire. There are also several suggestions for making sure students understand what bullying is such as conducting a class meeting or having individual conferences with students. It is vital that school staff inform students that bullying behaviors will not be tolerated and that they have a responsibility to report bullying that they have observed. If bullying behavior is witnessed by school staff it needs to be confronted and discussed with the offending student. Do not allow the student to blame the victim!

Another form of bully prevention focuses on educating potential victims on how to avoid becoming a target of bullying behavior. Victims of bullying may be reluctant to come forward about incidents of bullying. One way to combat this problem is to allow students to complete anonymous forms reporting bullying. Also carefully examine the schools daily schedule and look for time periods where bullying is most likely to occur and increase adult presence during those time periods. Finally, potential victims need to learn ways to stand up to the bullies and not allow themselves to become victims. Some suggestions are: don’t allow bullies to see you are upset, walk away from the situation, don’t allow the bullies to talk you into inappropriate behavior, and report the incidents of bullying to adults.

Strategies for Victims

1. Avoid bullies if possible

2. Tell adults about bullying

3. Be assertive and say things like “Stop it”, “Leave Me Alone”

4. Stay calm

5. Walk away

6. If you are in an area where bullying may happen surround yourself with a group of trusted friends

7. If in significant danger run

Use the witnesses of bullying as a prevention tool. Frequently students who observe bullying occurring will not intervene to stop the bullying, and will often begin to engage in the bullying behaviors themselves. Teachers need to inform students that they are also responsible for assisting in the prevention of bullying behaviors, and that if they witness it occurring they have a responsibility to intervene, and that they are also accountable for their behaviors. The witnesses need to understand that while they may not instigate the bullying, if they encourage the bully during the behaviors they are as guilty of bullying as the original bully. Finally, teachers need to focus on creating a bond between observers and victims of bullying so that students will feel sympathy for the victims and will want to care for them and support them.

Responsibility of the Bystander/Observer

1. Intervene

2. Support the victim of bullying

3. Report the bullying to an adult if the victim won’t

4. Write down the bullying you have witnessed and the names of all student involved in the bullying

Strategies to Make a School Safer

1. Increase adult presence in the transition areas, hallways, stairways, and bathrooms, where bullying is most likely to occur

2. Keep older and younger children separated during times where there are less adults present and bullying is more likely to occur

3. Train all staff members how to handle bullying behavior and how to intervene when they witness bullying occurring

4. Arrange classroom furniture so that there are not areas where bullying can occur outside of the view of the teacher or another adult

Bully Prevention Material and Resources


• Committee for Children

• ERIC/CASS Bullying in schools

• No Bully

• Preventing Bullying: A Manual for Schools & Communities

• The ABC’s of Bullying: Addressing, Blocking, and Curbing School Aggression (online course)

• Bully Police

• Olweus Bullying Prevention Program



• “Preventing Classroom Bullying: What Teachers Can Do” by Jim Wright

• Safe and Responsive Schools “Early Identification and Intervention: Bully Prevention”

• “Bully Prevention Information: Resources for Schools” by Warren Throckmorton

Topic 13


Issues Regarding Seclusion and Restraint

Federal Policies

• Federal legislative information is made available to the public as a primary source on the Library of Congress’ Thomas site.

• House Resolution 4247: Preventing Harmful Restraint and Seclusion in Schools Act was passed by the U.S. House of Representatives on March 3, 2010.

• On March 4, 2010 Senate Bill 2860 was read twice and referred to the Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions.

• Specific information about the Preventing Harmful Restraint and Seclusion Act now being reviewed by the Senate can be found on the Thomas Site at:

Support and Opposition

• Over 100 organizations have gone on record as being in support of HR4247 and SB2680. These organizations include Council for Children with Behavior Disorders, and the Council for Exceptional Children. The list of supporters with links to each of their sites can be found at:

o CCBD has released position papers regarding the use of seclusion and restraint:

• There is also opposition to some aspects of the bill

o The American Association of School Administrators:

o The AASA sent a letter to Congress opposing content in HR4247. The letter can be accessed from:

State Regulations

• On July 31, 2009, Secretary Arne Duncan sent a letter to the states and territories urging them to develop, review and/or revise their state policies and guidelines.

• Read Arne Duncan’s letter to states and territories:

• The Office of Elementary and Secondary Education compiled information concerning the status of each state's efforts with regard to limiting the use of seclusion and restraint in schools. Several states have developed guidelines for documenting and reporting, while some states have developed actual regulations and statutes regarding the use of seclusion and restraint in schools. A summary document of this information is available for download and a state-by-state summary table can be viewed at:

• Code of Maryland Regulations (COMAR) provides a detailed policy for school personnel in an online annotated state regulation site. Code:13A.08.04.03 is entitled Student Behavior Interventions Authority and reads as follows:

o School personnel are encouraged to use an array of positive behavior interventions, strategies, and supports to increase or decrease targeted student behaviors.

o School personnel shall only use exclusion, restraint, or seclusion:

 After less restrictive or alternative approaches have been considered, and:

o Attempted

o Determined to be inappropriate;

 In a humane, safe, and effective manner;

 Without intent to harm or create undue discomfort; and

 Consistent with known medical or psychological limitations and the student's behavioral intervention plan.

• Missouri’s Department of Elementary and Secondary Education is currently working on a Model policy. The Missouri General Assembly has declared, “By July 1, 2011, the local board of education of each school district shall adopt a written policy that comprehensively addresses the use of restrictive behavioral interventions as a form of discipline or behavior management technique. The policy shall be consistent with professionally accepted practices and standards of student discipline, behavior management, health and safety, including the safe schools act.” Read more on this Missouri State Statute at:

• Oregon’s State Board of Education adopted new provisions on the use of physical restraint and seclusion in Oregon public schools in 2006. Several policy and procedural changes where required as of September 1, 2007. These included:

o Each school district establishing written policies and procedures on the use of physical restraint and seclusion.

o Each district identifying the training program(s) or system(s) of physical restraints and seclusion to train appropriate staff.

The Oregon Department of Education provided schools with a technical assistance document. This document can be accessed through:

• Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction developed and posted directives in 2005. Wisconsin adapted Maryland’s (COMAR) regulations.

Website Resources

• National Disability Rights Network advocates for the enactment and vigorous enforcement of laws protecting civil and human rights of people with disabilities. They have release the report, “School is Not Supposed to Hurt” in 2009.

• Beach Center on Disability proposes a multi-tier approach to eliminating school seclusion and restraint except in emergency situations of imminent risk to the health or safety of the student or other persons.

• Disability Scoop is an on-line national news organization serving the developmental disability community. To read news articles about seclusion and restraint issues go to:

• Families Together is a parent training and information center serving Kansas families who include a child with disabilities. This section of the Families Together website provides resources and links for families.

• Kansas Department of Education offers guidelines for the use of seclusion and restraint. The state is also developing and providing training on data collection systems for documenting and reporting seclusion. More information and resource documents can be found at:

• Missouri Families Against Seclusion and Restraint is a grass roots organization in Missouri.

Additional Tools and Resources

• The following link is an on-line video presentation produced by the National Association of State Directors of Special Education.

o Title: Seclusion and Restraint: The Impact of Federal and State Policy on the Classroom

o Presenter(s): Dr. Joe Ryan, Amanda Lowe, & Bill East

o Length: 1 hour 33 Minutes

o You must use Internet Explorer in order to view

• Bazelon Center for Mental Health Law provides several resources related to mental health policy for children. While Protection and Advocacy (P&A) information is available, specific resources are available around the topic of seclusion and restraint.

• Ryan, et. al. (2007) provides information regarding commonly reported reasons among school staff for using seclusion and restraint.

Reasons Stated for Using Seclusion Staff Reports

Leaving Assigned Area 32.6%

Non-compliance 31.9%

Disrupting Class 11.2%

Property Misuse 10.1%

Disrespect 4.5%

Physical Aggression 2.8%

Harassment 2.4%

Threats 2.0%

Reasons Stated for Using Restraint Staff Reports

Non-compliance 48.4%

Leaving Assigned Area 19.4%

Disrespect 7.3%

Property Misuse 7.3%

Disrupting Class 6.5%

Physical Aggression 3.2%

Threats 3.2%

Horseplay 3.2%

Harassment 0.8%

• Training Programs: The following is a resource list of training programs that include a) a prevention focus, b) a behavior support emphasis, c) de-escalation strategies, and d) crisis response techniques.

Crisis Prevention Institute (CPI), Nonviolent Crisis Intervention Training Program:

• Philosophy: Providing a balanced behavior management system while maintaining care, welfare, safety and security for both the student and staff.

• Methodology: Provides a holistic system for defusing escalating behavior and safely managing physically aggressive behavior. CPI methods focus on effective communication and an understanding of human physiology during aggressive moments.

“Since 1980, more than 5 million human service professionals around the world have participated in the Nonviolent Crisis Intervention training program to learn its proven strategies for safely resolving situations when confronted by anxious, hostile or violent behavior, while still protecting the therapeutic relationships with those in their care.

CPI is committed to continuing its research, support, and delivery of the highest quality behavior management training and resources, and to serving as a positive change agent for helping professionals and the individuals in their care.” From the CPI website at .

Handle With Care (HWC):

• Philosophy: Handle With Care was designed for agencies caring for people who have the potential of being aggressive, violent, suicidal, and out of control.

• Methodology: HWC’s training program consists of verbal de-escalation (including theoretical models and role play) and non-violent physical interventions.

“The individual components of Handle With Care technology are integrated with each other, creating a system that is beautifully simple, coherent and adaptable to the classroom environment. Teachers who complete the training will have the practical tools to manage students effectively to avoid a crisis. When a crisis does occur, we teach you how to work as a team in “real time real speed” interventions. It is a program that your faculty will believe in because it is rooted in practicality, the ethical treatment of students and common sense.” From the Handle With Care website at .

The Mandt System:

• Philosophy: The Mandt system is based on the principle that all people have the right to be treated with dignity and respect. All individuals have the right to a personal identity, the right to normalization, and the right to the least restrictive and most appropriate environment.

• Methodology: The Mandt System teaches the use of a graded system of alternatives, which use the least amount of external management necessary in all situations.

“The Mandt System is a systematic training program designed to help you de-escalate yourself and other people (e.g., co-workers, spouse, children, friends, clients, patients, residents, students, etc.) when you or they have difficulty managing their own behavior. We believe that until you and the other person are de-escalated, no training (i.e., behavior program, etc.) or work will take place. The Mandt System blends well with a Behavior Support approach.” From the Mandt System website at

References & Readings

• COMAR: 13A.08.04. Student Behavior Interventions Authority. Students. State Board of Education, Annotated Code of Maryland Regulations. Available from:

• National Disability Rights Network. (2010). School is not supposed to hurt: Update on progress in 2009 to Prevent and Reduce Restraint and Seclusion in Schools. Available through download from the National Disability Rights Network at:

• Office of Student Learning and Partnerships. (2007). Technical assistance: Use of physical restraint and seclusion. Oregon Department of Education. Salem, Oregon. Available from:

• Peterson, R.L., Ryan, J., Otten, K., Couvillon, M. (2010). Reducing restraint and seclusion in schools: An update and analysis. Presentation at the Midwest Symposium for Leadership in Behavior Disorders. February 27, 2010: Kansas City, Missouri.

• Ryan, J.B., Peterson, R., Rozalski, M. (2007). State policies concerning the use of seclusion timeout in schools. Education and Treatment of Children. 30 (3) 215-239.

• Ryan, J.B., Peterson, R. (2004). Physical restraint in school. Behavioral Disorders 29 (2) 154-168.

• Ryan, J.B., Robbins, K., Peterson, R., Rozalski, M. (2009). Review of state policies concerning the use of physical restraint procedures in schools. Education and Treatment of Children. 32 (3) 487-504.

• Ryan, J.B., Peterson, R.L., Tetreault, G. & Van der Hagen, E. (2007). Reducing Seclusion Timeout and Restraint Procedures with At-Risk Youth. Journal of At-Risk Issues. 13(1), 7-12.

• Sailor, W., Doolittle, J., Bradley, R., & Danielson, L. (2008). Response to intervention and positive behavior support. In M. Roberts (Series Ed.) & W. Sailor, G. Dunlap, G. Sugai, & R. Horner (Vol. Eds.), Issues in clinical child psychology. Handbook of positive behavior support (pp. 729-754). New York: Springer.

• Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction. (2009). WDPI directives for the appropriate use of seclusion and physical restraint in special education programs. Madison, Wisconsin.

Glossary of Terms

• Ambulatory Restraint - manual restraint, therapeutic holding involves one or more people using their bodies to restrict another individual’s body movement

• Chemical Restraint - uses medication to control behavior or restrict individual’s freedom of movement

• Exclusion - the removal of a student to a supervised area for a limited period of time during which the student has an opportunity to regain self-control and is not receiving instruction or educational services

• Mechanical restraint - the use of any device or material attached or adjacent to the student's body that restricts freedom of movement or normal access to any portion of the student's body and that the student cannot easily remove. (Tape, tie downs, hand cuffs) "Mechanical restraint" does not include a protective or stabilizing device.

• Physical restraint - the use of physical force, without the use of any device or material, that restricts the free movement of all or a portion of a student's body.

• Protective or stabilizing device - any device or material attached or adjacent to the student's body that restricts freedom of movement or normal access to any portion of the student's body for the purpose of enhancing functional skills, preventing self-injurious behavior, or ensuring safe positioning of a person.

Protective or stabilizing devices include:

a) Adaptive equipment prescribed by a health professional, if used for the purpose for which the device is intended by the manufacturer;

b) Seat belts; or

c) Other safety equipment to secure students during transportation in accordance with the public agency or nonpublic school transportation plan.

• Restraint - any method of restricting an individual’s freedom of movement, physical activity, or normal access to his or her body

• Seclusion - the involuntary confinement of a student alone in a room or area from which the student is physically prevented from leaving.

• Time out - removing a student for a short time to provide the student with an opportunity to regain self-control, in a setting from which the student is not physically prevented from leaving. Types of Time-out include:

o Inclusion - takes place in the classroom; access to instruction

o Exclusion - takes place outside the classroom; no access to instruction

o Seclusion - takes place in a special room or location and the student is prevented from leaving and has no access to instruction