Saturday, February 20, 2010

Topic 6 : PCP and Wrap around


Person centered planning (PCP)

The process that creates a whole life plan based on the targeted individual. One important aspect of Positive behavior system. PCP’s are said to increase quality of life as it reduces any apparent problem behaviors. PCP is the foundation or starting point of any information gathering performed by a team of individuals. This may sound like the before mentioned FBA process but it is different in the direction members take while evaluating needs of the individual. Instead of focusing on what the individual cannot do until behavior is changed, the PCP process focus’s on what the individual needs to be successful.

Those involved in the PCP process are all members involved in the individuals life The parents and the individual are key elements in designing an effective plan. The Values are rooted in building upon an individuals positive strengths and building from the strengths up, the PCP and wrap around process do not look at the negatives in an individual but just the opposite. It is also important to realize these plans do not focus on experts or proven research models. Just the opposite they focus on the person and where to go from there is dependant upon the individual’s needs


• Increasing involvement in community activities

• Creating, developing and enhancing relationships

• Increasing individuals chance to make choices and express themselves

• Creating respect based relationships and life activities

• Improving the quality of life by use of skills and expertise

In the PCP process the vision develops the individuals ability to change or use strategies to address the individuals needs.

PCP Process is ongoing or cylical:

1. Develop a vision

2. Develop a plan

3. Evaluate the plan

4. Make any needed changes or adjustments

Preparing for a PCP or wrap around meeting? Here are some steps to follow:

1. Strategize the way to introduce the PCP strategies that will be incorporated – the facilatator may need to meet with family and other individuals prior to the wrap around meeting

2. Get to know the individual so you have a strong understanding of the individuals strengtObOhs, preferences and preferred communication styles. The individual can share their desires for the results of the meeting.

3. Obtain a list of people the individual would like to have in attendance and confer with the individual prior to the meeting about who will be there and the expectations.

4. Final task is to schedule the meeting at a time all team members and those asked to attend can meet

Problems that may occur:

• Individual indicates they do not want a particular team member in attendance

• Emotional connections to issues discussed

• Rapport with some individuals is not agreeable

• Do all involved understand the positive contributions the individual is able to contribute?

• Do all involved understand the PCP process?

• Contacting individuals who are not involved and trying to get them involved

• Building positive rapport with all individuals

Before the meeting steps to follow:

1. Collecting and organizing materials used in planning the meeting to ensure the smooth flow of the meeting process

2. Make sure there are activities for all to be involved in using chart papers to encorporate all voices in the meeting

3. Use visual reminders during the meeting to focus members on the strengths and needs in all areas

4. Establish ground rules for the meeting sessions to encourage professional and safe environment for all involved

5. Make sure individual is involved in the planning process

After completing the first meeting set dates for follow up meetings to evaluate the effectiveness of the plan

Evaluate team process

Evaluate team changes

Evaluate system change

Facilitator’s role in follow up meetings

* schedule the meetings in cooperation with individual and their parent

* respond to team members requests for information

* Assis the team in reviewing data

* Brainstorm new goals with the team as needed

* summarize and document the changes to vision or plan of action

Wrap around planning includes all individuals involved in working with the targeted individual including the individual and their family members.
Wrap around planning covers 10 domains of life
•Family support,
•Living situation,
•Basic needs,
•Emotional/behavioral, and
•Cultural/spiritual issues


Thursday, February 18, 2010

TOPIC 5 : Functional Assessment

Basic Concepts of a Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA)

1. Selecting the behavior in explicit terms is one of the most important starting parts in creating a FBA
a. Select the type of measuring tool that will be used to document and measure the inappropriate behaviors
b. Find the function or reason the behavior is occurring
c. Identify the areas the behavior occurs in most

2. Define areas of importance
a. Setting events – what is happening in the child’s environment
b. Antecedent – what is happening right before the behavior begins
c. Problem behavior – needs to have a definition that can be observed by anyone who may enter the room
d. Consequences
i. Positive reinforcement
ii. Negative reinforcement
iii. Sensory or automatic reinforcement

3. Select an appropriate measurement form
a. Duration measurement
b. Latency measurement
c. Partial time
d. Whole time
e. Momentary time
f. Direct observations
g. Indirect observations
h. Check list of behavior

Methods for conducting the FBA

Types of Measurement tools used in finding, identifying and defining problem behaviors:

Types of indirect observational tools
1. questionnaires
2. check list
3. rating scales
4. reviewing files
5. reviewing old evaluations, medical records, or other personal files available on the individual
Commonly used tools are:
Motivation Assessment Scale (MAP)
• Motivation Analysis Rating Scale (MARS)
• Questions About Behavior Function (QABF)
Setting Events Check list

The Disadvantages of Indirect Observation:
1. Observations by various observers are not always accurate
2. Data taken different times of the day
3. Interest to receive extra supports by those involved may give higher points on rating scales
4. Observers may have preconceived notions of the problems

The disadvantages may be addressed by:
1. Using multiple informants
2. Survey informants on different data days
3. Use with other forms of measurement tools

Types of Direct observations:
1. ABC analysis
2. Functional Assessment observation forms
3. Scatter plot

Disadvantages to this type of observation:
1. May require extra training of personnel
2. The actual presence of an outside observer may trigger behavior
3. limited time
4. Observer may be affected by reactivity

The disadvantages may be addressed by:
1. Use several data days
2. Use a variety of settings for gathering data
3. Have personnel that frequent the class/area collect data
4. Personalize the measurement tool
5. Use the appropriate measurement tool for the behavior

A functional analysis is used to identify patterns between the behavior and other events in the environment and to generate hypotheses about what might be controlling the behavior.
Functional analysis of antecedent and consequences:
1. Attention condition – the evaluator gives the individual attention only when the target behavior occurs
2. Tangible or toy removal – when the individual begins to show the behavior item decided upon earlier is provided for set amount of time and then removed
3. Escape condition – When the problem behavior occurs work materials are removed and a short break is given
4. Alone condition – individual is left in room by themselves without materials or people in which to interact
5. Control condition – A group of preferred activities or toys are available with out tasks. The experimenter interacts with individual with ongoing positive interaction for positive behaviors

Antecedent based Functional Analysis – functional analysis which is conducted with antecedents for problem behavior is presented.
1. Usually used with multi element experimental design

Disadvantages for Functional Analysis:
1. educators are reluctant and concerned about purposefully triggering behavior
2. time that is needed
3. man power needed to conduct
4. may shape a ‘new’ problem behavior

TEAM MEMBERS in the FBA – All members involved with the individual should have a part in the actual collection and decision making process. The individual should be involved as much as possible in the process as well.
Team members may be:
• Social worker
• Teacher
• Parent
• Specials teachers
• Nurse
• Principal
• Staff within the school or other setting
• Doctors
• Special education teachers
• Paraprofessionals
• Individual themselves
• Occupational therapist
• Speech therapist
• Siblings
• Grandparents


1. Build your hypothesis - this is the time to make decisions about the reason the behavior occurs and to involve all team members in the process
2. Interpret the data
3. Once the team has confirmed the hypothesis the FBA may be written

1. Develop a clear description of the behavior
2. Decide what assessment tools will be used
3. Take meeting time to decide who will take notes and delegate responsibilities
4. Bring together results of assessments and data collected with the team to develop and confirm the team's hypothesis
5. Write the actual report

FBA Cookbook By the Unified School District #500's%20forms/SETTING%20EVENTS%20CHECKLIST.pdf

Sunday, February 14, 2010

Topic 4: Assessment

This section deals with the types of assessment performed at each level of the three tier system model.  The first level focuses on most/all students level of abilities and looks mainly at academics.  In the second tier the assessments begin to look at academics as well as behavioral assessments.  There are a variety of test performed on students today.  The following will give some idea of the types:
Academic Based


TIER I  Interventions begin in the classroom.  Teachers use reading and math assessments to find the abilities of the students they teach.  Some of the assessments used in District 500 schools are:
(Criterion Referenced Test)
DRA -Diagnostic reading assessment this assessment focuses on fluency of readers through accuracy, fluency, comprehension and strategy useage
*  Running records- - checklist of words read in text and students comprehension of the text
MAP - Measurement of aptitude and performance in math and reading abilities this is a computer based assessment that levels as the student answers questions to the level of the learner
DIBELS - Dynamic Indicator of Basic Early Literature Skills this assessment focuses on the 5 main components of reading 1.  Phonemic Awareness 2.  Alphabetics principles 3. Fluency and accuracy 4.  Vocabulary  5.  Comprehension

TIER II Interventions generally involve some of the prior criterion referenced testing as well as other RTI (Response to Intervention) testing
Student Improvement Teams - Teams of Teachers and other specialist in the school discuss interventions that can be put in place to help students in the general education classroom and the progress of interventions
Functional Behavior Analysis - FBA
Functional Assessment Interviews - FAI - used to identify the functions or root cause of behavior based on the student.  The FAI has four  goals, 1) identify social skill difficulties 2) assist in the differentiation of social skills acquisition 3) identify competing problem behaviors that may interfere 4) obtain initial information regarding the function of the behavior
BIP - Behavior Intervention Plans
*  Progress monitoring assessments that are generally self made by the teachers
*Behavior Rating scales -  one of the most commonly and least expensive - unfortunately also very subjective to typical  rather than actual behavior in any setting
*  Social Skills Rating Scales - SSRS - Social Skills Rating Scale a comprehensive assessment of social skills
SSCSA - Scales of Social Competence and School Adjustment a rating scale designed to be completed by teachers and other school professionals.This is an excellent psychometric test in terms of reliability and validity.
Sociometric Techniques - information is gathered directly from the student's peer group.  This test is used to evaluate children's friendship patterns.  They have two basic methods 1) peer nominations and 2) peer ratings by others
Systematic Observation of Social Behavior - most important social skill assessment methods.  Four factors should be considered in recording the systematic behavioral observations :1) operational definitions of behavior 2) dimensions of the behavior to be assessed 3) the number and types of behaviors assessed 4) the number of observation sessions.  It is suggested to use the FAI aforementioned as a precursor to the systematic observation 

TIER III Interventions are students who generally are not making progress in the first two tiers of intervention.  After going through a systematic process students parents are contacted and more formalized testing begins.  The school psychologist generally follow the more advanced and scripted assessments of social, academic, IQ, functional and behavioral abilities.
BASC - Behavior Assessment System for Children
*Woodcock Johnson III (WJ-III)”
 “Wescheler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC)
For more in depth information on the types of test school psychologist, counselors and schools provide to their students visit one of the following blog spots:
Cristina's blog at :
Holly at:
 Ed at:

Links as shown above
Information from - lessons and instructions from class
Information from USD 500 Personnel using forms and providing services

Thursday, February 11, 2010

Topic 4 : Assessment

So we have given some idea of emotional behavior disorders.  We have discussed managing the difficult behavior that may be observed in the classroom.  Now let's look at ways of assessing the needs of the students.  Who is that person who will test your child?  Generally in public schools assessing is done by a school psychologist or parents are strongly encouraged to visit their doctors or other community based agencies.  Teachers may assess academic abilities of students and fill out simple behavior list for their students but they are not the sole assessors in the process.  The following list will give you some understanding of the variety of assessment test out there and somewhere to begin.

Thursday, February 4, 2010

Personal Assessment/Newcomer

Kim Daniels – Personal Assessment – I used my reading groups during second grade reading as my primary focus during the questions

Positive Behavior Support for the Classroom Newcomer, 2007 Universal Positive Behavior Supports Classroom Strategies Self-Assessment

1. What is your attention signal? When do you use it?

I generally use the ,” 123, look at me” then I wait….

2. What are your classroom rules?

School wide rules are: Be respectful, Be a learner, and Be in control - that generally covers our basic rules in groups

3. What is the routine/procedure to gain assistance?

Students raise their hand

4. What are the consequences for appropriate behavior?

School wide system – Bulldog bucks. I also use stickers and occasionally hand out surprises when they least expect it!

5. What are the consequences for inappropriate behavior?

Reminders to stay on task, then they are removed from the group, then 5 minutes of recess and if they are still having issues we send them to a buddy room to fill in a think sheet. If they return and continue to have problems we call home and if this still is not enough they are sent to the principals office

6. What is the routine/procedure for the start of class?

Since I am an intervention teacher, I do not have a start of class but I do begin with a brief conversation “ how are you today” and then we move into the actual lesson

7. What is the routine/procedure for working in groups?

Students follow the same basic rules for the classroom – when they are in a group without a teacher they are to work quietly but they may interact as long as they follow the posted rules – the same consequences for misbehavior

8. What is the routine/procedure for working independently?

The only time they work independently is when they should be reading quietly to themselves and the routine is get your books, read and continue until the time is up – there is no talking with partners at this time. (although in second grade they tend to read out loud a lot and it is quite noisy at times)

9. What is the routine/procedure for obtaining materials/supplies?

They should know where the items are and get them as they need – we trust they are old enough to obtain needed materials without interrupting others – if it is a paper they are to raise their hand and wait for response

10. What is the routine/procedure for personal belongings (e.g. hats, coats)?

These items should be secured in the coat closet as they arrive – if toys are out and causing disruption they are taken until parents come to retrieve them or until the end of the day (depends on type of toy)

11. What is the routine/procedure for entering/exiting the classroom?

Come in go to your area and talk quietly with table partners until instruction begins

12. How many students in the classroom read below grade level? above grade level? (I am not the classroom teacher but I believe it is an abnormally uneven group with the majority below at this time – this is according to scores before Christmas)

13. How many students in the classroom have a disability for which they receive IEP services? This particular classroom has two – I service 21 students K-2

Which of the above items must be developed as part of the classroom universal positive behavior support plan?

1 5 9

2 6 10

3 7 11

4 8

Positive Behavior Support for the Classroom Newcomer, 2007

Physical Space: Is physical space organized to allow access to instructional materials? L M H

Work centers are easily identified and correspond with instruction 1 2 3~

Traffic flow minimizes physical contact between peers and maximizes teacher mobility

1 2~ 3

Attention: Does the teacher gain the attention of the students prior to instruction? L M H

A consistent and clear attention signal is used across instructional contexts

1 2~ 3

Uses a variety of techniques to gain, maintain, and regain student attention to task.

1 2 ~ 3

Time: Does the teacher initiate instructional cues and materials to gain, maintain, and regain student attention? L M H

Materials are prepared and ready to go. 1 2 3 ~

Pre-corrects are given prior to transitions. 1 2 ~ 3

Common intrusions are anticipated and handled with a consistent procedure. Unexpected intrusions are minimized with an emphasis on returning to instruction.

1 2 ~ 3

Down-time (including transitions) is minimal 1 2 ~ 3

Behavior Management: Does the teacher have universal systems of PBS in place? L M H

Rules are posted 1 2 3 ~

Rules are referred to at appropriate times 1 2 3 ~

Students receive verbal praise for following rules 1 2 ~ 3

Corrections are made by restating the rule/expectation and stating the appropriate replacement behavior.

1 2 ~ 3

Continuum of consequences for encouraging expected behaviors

1 2 ~ 3

Continuum of consequences for discouraging expected behaviors

1~ 2 3

Maintains a 4:1 ratio of positive to negative statements 1~ 2 3

Routines: Does the teacher have procedures and routines that are clear and consistently followed? L M H

Start of class 1~ 2 3

Working in groups 1 2~ 3

Working independently 1~ 2 3

Special events (movies, assemblies, snacks, parties) 1~ 2 3

Obtaining materials and supplies 1 2 ~ 3

Using equipment (e.g. computer, tape players) 1~ 2 3

Managing homework and other assignments 1 2 3~

Personal belongings (e.g. coats, hats) 1 2 3~

Entering/exiting classroom (e.g. using restroom/drinking fountain, going to library, moving around room

1 2~ 3

(While taking this assessment I found the highlighting and changing of text color a useful tool in making choices:))

Wednesday, February 3, 2010

Topic 3 Managing Classroom Behaviors

Check out these checklist - Are you an Awesome Teacher with great Management?  Here are some great checklist
Ref:  CPS PBS Draft 061807 (Setting up Routines)
Create Your Classroom Routines

Name: _________________________________________________ Date: _________

Consistency, Consistency, Consistency! The key to success! Establish and stick with routines that fit your teaching style and your students will be successful! Kids like predictable situations where they know the routine and know the consequences. Use this checklist to give you ideas of routines that you may need to teach and practice! You will create more teaching time for yourself in the long run!

Arrival Routines

_____ Entering the Classroom
What is the expectation for when and how students enter the classroom?
(walking, no talking, hug the teacher, greet at the door, go to seat, etc.)
_____ Backpacks
When and how should students hang up their backpacks? Do they need to get everything out of it for the day?
_____ Coatroom / Lockers
Is there a limit as to how many people can be in the coatroom / out at lockers at
_____ Lunch Boxes
Where should students put their lunch boxes in the morning so they are easily assessable for lunch?
_____ Notes from Home
Where should students put notes from parents?
_____ Friday/Monday Folders
When and where should students return Friday Folders?
_____ Chairs
Will students need to get their chair off of a stack? Will they do this before or after they put away backpacks?
_____ Attendance
How is attendance taken?
_____ Morning Work/Arrival Activity or Assignment
Will there be morning work on the students’ desks/Smart Board/overhead when they come in? Will they turn it in when they finish or will you go over it as a class?
_____ Tardy/Late Arrivers
What do students who arrive late need to do?

Daily Routines

_____ Lining Up/ Line Order
How and where will student line up? What will their line order be? How often will you change line order?
_____ Water Bottles
Where will student keep their water bottles during the day? What will students do if they want or need to refill their water bottle?

_____ Homework
Where should students put their homework? How will you check homework for completion? Grade? How will homework be returned to students?
_____ Missed Homework Assignments
How and where do students get homework assignments they missed due to an absence?
_____ Unfinished Work
What should students do when they have unfinished work? What will the consequence be for your classroom?
_____ Completed Work Early
What should students do when they complete assignments early? Read? Write?
_____ Asking for Assistance/Getting Teacher Attention
Will student be able to ask other students for help? Ask three before you come to me? Raise your hand?
_____ Writing Name on Work
Will students need to always write their first and last name? Class Number? Date? Top right hand corner? On line provided?
_____ Snacks
What will your procedure for snack be? Will each student bring snack once a month for everyone to share? What will you do if people do not have snacks? Where will snacks be kept until snack time?
_____ Transitions From Whole Class to Small Group Activities
How do your students move in the classroom between large/whole class instruction to small group activities?
_____ Transitions From Whole Class to Partner Work
How do your students move in the classroom between large/whole class instruction to partner work?
_____ Transitions From Whole Class to Independent Work
How do your students move in the classroom between large/whole class instruction to independent work?
_____ Working Independently
What are the expected procedures, rules, and behaviors when completing independent work?
_____ Partner Work
What are the expected procedures, rules, and behaviors when completing partner work?
_____ Working in Groups
What are the expected procedures, rules, and behaviors when working in small groups?
_____ Working at Centers/Stations?
What are the expected procedures, rules, and behaviors when working in small groups?
_____ Working in Large group/whole class
What are the expected procedures, rules, and behaviors when working in large group/whole class?
_____ Pencil Sharpening
When will students sharpen pencils? How will they know when they can sharpen pencils?
_____ Getting More Materials
When and where may students get more materials (paper, scissors, books, etc.)?

_____ Classroom Jobs
Will you have classroom jobs? What jobs will you have? When and how will students perform jobs?
_____ Agenda/Homework Assignments
When and where will students write down their homework assignments? Will parents have to sign off on homework?
_____ Lost and Found
Where will lost or found items be put that are from the classroom?
_____ Bathroom
What will your bathroom procedure be? Will you go as a class? Have students sign out and in? What are procedures if you have a bathroom in your classroom?
_____ Answering Phone/Welcoming Visitors
Who answers the phone? Do you want to have materials available to take a note? What do you or students do when a visitor arrives?
_____ Individual Students Re-entry From Specialists, Nurse, Counselor, etc.
What do students who come back to class reenter without disturbing others? Who do they ask to learn what they should do?
_____ Correction Procedures (Safe Seat, Buddy Room, Office Referral)
What do students do when corrected? What materials are needed? How will you teach? What do they do to leave? What behaviors do they need to display to reenter? Who, when and how will students discuss their behavior and what they need to do in the future?
_____ Cell phones, iPODS, other Electronic Devices
What are your expectations regarding the use of these devices in your classroom? Make sure that your rules/routines are in alignment with school-wide policies.

Dismissal Routines
_____ Chairs
What will students need to do with their chairs at the end of the day? Stack? Put on top of desk?
_____ Coat Room / Lockers
When and how will students know they can go to the coat room /lockers?
_____ Backpacks
When will students get their backpacks? How will they know they have everything they need for the night?
_____ Homework
How will you assign homework? Remember, the guideline is 10 minutes per grade level per night. We try to stay away from weekend homework so families can have family time. (Also, no homework during standardized testing- MAP, CAT, etc.)
_____ Leaving the Classroom
Will students all leave at the same time? Will students have to tell you one thing they learned before they can leave? What will y our expectations and routine be?
_____ Bus Riders
Will students sit at their seats until their bus is called? Will they line up at the door? Will they play a game until they are called?
_____ Walkers and Car Riders
Will students sit at their seats until walkers and car riders are called? Will they line up at the door? Will they play a game until they are called?

Topic 3: Managing classroom behaviors

Behavior management is one of the most important jobs for a teacher.  The following are ideas and information that may be helpful when setting up your classroom!  Enjoy!

More to come as the computers become more useable:)



Behavior Management – Proactive Measures

Most of what happens in a classroom must be closely controlled by a caring, trustworthy adult. Order, limit setting, and structure are essential in a classroom setting. Teachers should take every possible proactive measure using the following steps:
  1. Arrange furniture to meet social/emotional needs as well as instructional and organizational needs.

  2. Adjust schedules to provide a balance between highly structured periods and more stimulating activities.

  3. Establish a group behavior management plan that incorporates individual needs.

  4. Provide direct instruction, programmed learning, and precision teaching lessons. These will build students' self-confidence while establishing a knowledge base from which to expand problem-solving and higher-level thinking skills, as students demonstrate readiness for learning experiences that require less external structure.

  5. Keep student-to-student interactions to a minimum initially. This is especially important during times when adult monitoring would be difficult. Trust and safety cannot be established if individuals within the group continually undermine each other or the adults, with problems created in secret.

  6. Provide group-building opportunities that move students from an "I" to a "We" orientation without overstimulating or threatening them. These activities and opportunities are most effective when integrated into the affective, academic, and recreational arenas.

  7. Select a group peer leader. The group will select a leader whether the teacher assists with this process or not. Qualities of leadership include being perceived as similar to other group members and being reinforced for modeled behavior.

  8. Be aware of how individual needs affect group dynamics. Group members typically assume roles early in the establishment of the group dynamics.
  9. Show empathy and unconditional regard at all times, but especially when students are in the midst of a crisis.

  10. Attend with extreme care to students' physiological as well as psychological needs. Have extra clothing, food, and drink available. Make washable pillows to use when students sit on the floor. Keep bandages, hand lotion, and soap available. Much of the acting out behavior reflects a need for power or attention. Attempt to give as little emotional response as possible to inappropriate behavior. Make responses to appropriate behavior obviously animated and positive.

Characteristics of Effective Behavior Managers

Effective behavior managers:
  1. Respect their own strengths and weaknesses as seriously as those of their students.
  2. Understand that social-emotional growth is a never-ending process.
  3. Clearly communicate rules, goals, and expectations.
  4. Respond to behaviors consistently and predictably.
  5. Discriminate between issues of responsibility and problem ownership.
  6. Exhibit high degrees of empathy and self-efficacy.
Behaviors teachers exhibit that contribute to successful classroom management include:
  • having materials organized
  • using a pleasant tone of voice
  • being aware of multiple elements of group functioning simultaneously
  • being able to anticipate possible problems and react quickly to avoid them.
High levels of self-efficacy have a positive effect on behavior management as well as academic achievement. Teachers who exhibit high levels of self-efficacy use more positive reinforcement, prefer to work with the whole group, and persist with students who are experiencing difficulty, rather than ignoring or giving up on them. The teacher's ability to be empathetic can also be associated with student success. Empathetic teachers report experiencing less stress and exhibit the following qualities:
  • Warm
  • Caring
  • Affectionate
  • Friendly (smile frequently)
  • Soft-spoken
  • Calm
  • Relaxed
  • Humorous
  • Analytical of behavior and motives
  • Able to predict how another will act
  • Able to sympathize
  • Not easily incited to express anger
  • Not easily depressed under difficult circumstances
  • Able to subordinate their own needs and feelings for another's benefit
  • Spontaneous
  • Balanced in feelings of self-worth and self-regard
  • Encouraging
  • Inspiring
  • Motivating
  • Adaptable to the needs of others
  • Altruistic (desire to make a personal contribution)
  • Able to give positive verbal and nonverbal feedback
  • Conscientious in attending to students' needs
  • Do not need to be the center of attention
  • Make others centrally involved
  • Independent and creative
  • Totally accepting of individual differences, but do not focus on deviance
  • Highly intuitive and feeling
  • Do not feel a great need to control all people and events


Can be defined as behaviors that are inappropriate for the circumstances such as aggression, pervasive mood disorders that affect a child's educational performance unfavorably and cannot be explained by intelligence, sensory or health factors. 
Wikipedia defines Emotional Behavior Disorder (EBD) as  "a broad category which is used commonly in educational settings, to group a range of more specific perceived difficulties of children and adolescents. Both general definitions as well as concrete diagnosis of EBD may be controversial as the observed behavior may depend on many factors."

Common Terms that fall under EBD:
ADHD- Attention Deficiet Hyperactivity Disorder
ADD- Attention Deficiet Disorder
ODD - Oppositional Defiant Disorder
CD- Conduct Disorder
Autism Spectrum Disorders
Learning Disorders
Eating Disorders

*  inability to learn with no reason to validate
*  inability to build or maintain positive relationships
*  Inappropriate feelings or behaviors based on surrounding circumstances
*  a mood of unhappiness or depression that is ongoing
*  tendancy to develop fears and physical maladys associated with school problems or personal problems

As Educators What can we Do?
1.  Include the student in the general education classroom where they can observe appropriate behaviors
2.  Give clear direct instruction
3.  Have clear rules defined and posted in the classroom
4.  Clear list of consequences for misbehavior or breaking of the rules posted in classroom
5.  Adjust teaching style to reach student
6.  Acknowledge strengths and positives within the class
7.  Collaborate with the student a plan for their success in the classroom

Check out these websites for more helpful tools: